Add varying doses of alum in increasing order corresponding to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg per litre the beakers simultaneously and start a stopwatch. This sago is native to Brazil, Amazon, Colombia, Venezuela, West Indies, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. McGraw Hill, New York, Manickavasagan A, Thangavel K (2006) A survey of water consumption and product output from Ten Sago Factories in India. Coagulation dosage is one of the most important factors that have been considered to determine the optimum condition for the performance of coagulants in coagulation and flocculation. The factors that influence coagulation–flocculation are, among others, temperature, pH, effluent quality, dosage and coagulant type (Nnaji 2012; Jin 2005; Ma et al. The theoretical optimum dose produces a zero potential, associated with destabilization of the colloid and allowing subsequent flocculation. Similar results were obtained when chitosan is used as a coagulant by Jill et al. Tapioca is mainly processed into starch and sago. M. Eng. Based on the results it is found that chitin has not considerable potential to be used in the treatment of hard waters, especially in medium and high turbidities. Though PAC is widely used in other countries its use in India for water purification is not appreciable. Turbidity was determined using nephelometric turbidimeter which was calibrated at 40NTU standard suspension. Each 1.0 mL of this stock solution will equal 10 mg\L (ppm) when added to 1,000 mL of water to be tested. Hence, the optimized dosages were further optimized for varied mixing speed and time for each stage of coagulation. An Optimum Dose Of 12.5 Mg/L Of Alum Was Determined. It all depends on the wastewater characteristics, the mixing & dispersion conditions, the phosphorus concentration in your raw water and the expected concentration at the release point & so on… Theoretically, one mole of Al is required to react with one mole of P to … Coll Surf Physicochem Eng Asp 147(3):359–364, Jin Y (2005) Use of high resolution photographic technique for studying coagulation/flocculation in water treatment. Color removal efficiencies of the three coagulants. The coagulation efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range of 1–4 g L−1 at pH range of 6–8. 2013). The color removal patterns of both alum and chitin were observed to be good at neutral pH, further more chitin has shown moderate efficiency in removing color at both the acidic and basic pH ranges, i.e., at pH 6 and also 8. But in practice, complexes of polyacrylamide and Al2 (SO4)2 is mainly used in water flocculation because of its good flocculation performance and low dosage. In fact, hardness removal was good at the same mixing speed with pH 8 (87.5 %) by sago, Fig. The optimum alum dosage was higher (20 mg/L) for initial turbidity of 1000 NTU which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. It is observed that total hardness reduction is good with chitin at pH 6 with both mixing speeds. Coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation (CFS) with starch in their studies has shown that treatment performances are poor in general except oil and grease removals for domestic wastewater. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. Natural coagulants have been the 2009. However starting from the experiment number 9, corresponding to 340 NTU, it was necessary to increase the dosage because this was insufficient for that �3��6iԃ����KƩ�T�g����8��(�Y���nS��*_�i�_F�bЫ���������ń2"OM�Q� '��E�2R�*��u�fB����9�AL�Y*�r��l�06����!�85�pH%Ȇ��@�W����ޱ�H Hence, it is concluded that chitin and sago have properties that are of interest in water treatment. All the results obtained were in limits according to the Indian Drinking Water Standards given in Table 2. Being from natural sources, these compounds can generate value-added products, presenting itself as a new source of income. The samples were transported to the laboratory and all the experiments conducted within duration of 24 h. Temperature was noted at the point of sample collection. If 50x10^6 Gal/day Of Raw Water Are To Be Treated, Determine The Amount Of Alum Required (kg/yr). The study was initialized by testing the efficiency of the coagulants in removal of turbidity. Various methods are used to make water safe and attractive to the consumer. Optimum pH for the coagulation operation obtained through traditional methods and RSM was 7.6. The authors would like express their thanks to University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India for financial support. 1). Correct application of coagulation and flocculation processes and selection of the coagulants depend upon understanding the interaction between these factors. $}1��]"%�4NGN�^ÿ?�H��7*�HK �J��z��K�S�Y�8KJH����c"$;`�oG�2г�2iY�]��.Y�H�����U�J3��΂R]$�"i���柰������mB*tB҄N+W d�Ps��8�7��9�y�s�����'����@�;�b�Uy�[�&���?�� While it is understandable that these coagulants are meant as simple domestic point of use (POU) technology, there have also been numerous studies focused on their usage for treatment of industrial wastewaters. Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana, Report of Investigation 68, 1971. 2007). They have achieved almost 100 % oil and grease removal for domestic wastewater as a result of the CFS process with starch. As evidenced with Fig. In other words, results showed that alum … determinatin of optimum alum dose COAGULANT DOSAGE IN A WATER TREATMENT PLANT INTRODUCTION The main difficulty is to determine the optimum coagulant dosage related to the influent of raw water. Alkalinity was also removed adequately at the higher mixing speed at pH 6 (80 %), by sago at lower concentrations, whereas decrease in alkalinity is 80 % with alum at only 0.20 doses at pH 7 at mixing speed 80 and 20 and at pH 8 with both mixing speed. Determination of sample color was done using absorbance reading and standard curve relating absorbance and CU. Optimum coagulant dosage for algal reduction was found to be similar to that for turbidity removal. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. However, overdosing was observed for low to medium turbidity waters when 5 g L−1 alum was used. Therefore, it is significant to determine the optimum dosage to minimize the dosing cost and sludge formation and also to obtain the optimum performance in treatment (Patel and Vashi 2013). The coagulants nominated in this study are a plant-based coagulant, sago and the other derived from non-plant source chitin (widely produced from exoskeleton of crustaceans). J R Soc Interface 4:999–1030, McConnachie GL, Folkard GK, Mtawali MA, Sutherland JP (1999) field trials of appropriate hydraulic flocculation processes. Mar Drugs 8(7):1988–2012, Li Q, Kegley L (2005) Assessing the effectiveness and environmental impacts of using natural flocculants to manage turbidity. Turbidity can change the organoleptic properties of water. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. Recent and continuing interest in these macromolecules is evident from the number of papers that appear each year in the literature on this topic (Blackburn 2004; Guibal 2004). The conductivity was determined using a conductivity cell which was calibrated with standard 0.1 N KCl solution of conductivity 14.12 mmhos at 30 °C. Immediately run the paddles at 100 rpm for 1 minute. The observations from the study revealed the optimum pH conditions to be 6, 7 and 8. Chitin is one of the most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth that can be obtained as a cheap renewable biopolymer from marine sources (Feisal and Montarop 2010). Amuda OS, Amoo IA, Ajayi OO (2006) Performance optimization of coagulant/flocculant in the treatment of wastewater from a beverage industry. They can be proposed as an important alternative for water treatment. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. All samples were collected in sterile plastic containers. 1 0 obj 2003). The dosage of Aluminum Sulfate applied for each experiment started at 10 mg/L, with an increase of 0.5 mg/L between each sample. Hence, it can be concluded that sago and chitin can be used for treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity. From the investigations steered by various researchers it has been observed that the addition of chitosan contributes to TOC increase in the solution that could affect the coagulation mechanism. XXVII Inter-American Congress of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering. J Hazard Mater 129(1–3):69–72, Article  Hence, the optimum pH for alum was found to be 7, whereas chitin was substantially stable at all the given pH ranges. Water samples from Station 9 (Road Runner Beach) and … It can also provide food and shelter for pathogens in the distribution system leading to waterborne diseases (Mackenzie and Cornwell 1991). Sep Purif Technol 38:43–74, Hasçakir B (2003) Utilization of natural polyelectrolytes in wastewater treatment. In certain applications where the organic content is relatively stable, satisfactory coagulation can be achieved by varying the coagulant dose rate to maintain a pH set-point. 2 0 obj The origin of chitin affects its crystallinity, purity, polymer chain arrangement, and dictates its properties (Rinaudo 2006). Furthermore, after determining the optimum alum dosage for natural river water, the optimum pH value for color removal was studied by varying the range from 4.5 to 8.5. endobj 2001). Recently, the use of environmentally friendly coagulants is widened. You cannot say that simply without knowing the characteristics of the water under consideration. Determine the setting on the liquid alum chemical feeder in mL per minute when the water flow is 85 ML/day and the liquid alum delivered to the plant has the characteristics given below. J Chem Technol Biot 79:782–788. Reagents required: Alum solution (1 ml containing 10 mg of alum) Procedure : 1. In other words, results showed that alum dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide in this study. Alkalinity was determined by titrimetric method using standard 0.02 N H2SO4. One of their most important features is the ability (flexibility) to be shaped into different forms such as fibers, hydrogels, beads, sponges, and membranes (Mano et al. volume 7, pages451–460(2017)Cite this article. ing 10.0 grams of alum into 1,000 mL dis-tilled water. The Humana Press Inc., Totowa, Yukselen MA, Gregory J (2004) The effect of rapid mixing on the break-up and re-formation of flocs. Appl Water Sci 7, 451–460 (2017). • Using the prepared stock solution of alum, dose each beaker with increased amounts of the solution. According to the experiments by Bina et al. Chemical structure of (starch) amylose and amylopectin (Buleon et al. The turbidity reduction was observed to be prodigious at high rpm, i.e., 100–30 rpm at all pH ranges. Hardness was determined by EDTA method. The reduction of turbidity and other parameters was observed to be good at pH 7. Determine The Amount Of Natural Alkalinity (mg/L As CaCO3) Consumed. The goal of the lab was to determine the optimum coagulation dosage for alum and possibly soda ash for this water source. The removal of chloride was perceived to be noble at pH 7 with mixing speed of 80–20 (78.57 %) by sago on the other hand alum and chitin both are good in reduction of chlorides by 48 % at pH 6 in both mixing speed at all doses, Fig. Investigating the influence of mixing speed on trends of turbidity removal by alum chitin and sago, the results have shown that the ability of chitin and sago can be used in wide range of pH and at higher mixing speed conditions. <> Coagulation allows by the injection and the scattering of chemical (coagulants) during relatively intense mixing to destabilize naturally occurring particles and macromolecules and/or to precipitate additional particles (Mackenzie and Cornwell 1991). The specifications of Jar test apparatus used for coagulation are as follows: Made: Cintex flocculator; model: CIC-30; size: 10″ × 24″ × 32″; display: digital 12 mm red LED display for RPM; speed: common, variable from 5 to 160 with accuracy of ±1 RPM; capacity: suitable for 1,000 ml × 4 No’s; illumination: fluorescent tubes; dimension: D 250 mm × H 560 mm × W 790 mm; power supply: 230 v ±10 % Ac. Furthermore, the high concentrations (>30.0 g L−1) of the coagulant may confer positive charges on the particle surface (a positive-zeta potential), thus redispersing the particles (Amuda et al. Correspondence to At 100–30 mixing speed turbidity reduction was maximum (53.85–100 %) at pH 6 for all doses of sago comparatively with 80–20 mixing speed which showed maximum reduction (53.85–100 %) at pH 7. The obtained results are in accordance with those obtained by Volk et al. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSE (ALUMINIUM SULPHATE) IN THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OF ATHENS IN GALATSI FACILITIES DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD CSUSB recently collected samples from the east bay at Canyon Lake. J Mol Biol 120:167–181, Muzzarelli RAA (1977) Chitin. To determine the optimal alum dose needed for an influent water turbidity of 100 NTU, we set up a special program in Process Controller. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1–0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70–100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. This may be as a result of resuspension of solids at this concentration. Furthermore, the cationic corn starch generated better results than those obtained with the cationic synthetic polymer. KSCE J Civil Eng 17(2):328–334, Jill RP, Chihpin H, Shuchuan C, Ying-Chien C (1999) Evaluation of a modified chitosan biopolymer for coagulation of colloidal particles. In terms of action on the physico-chemical characteristics of the clarified water, the natural polymers and coagulants show or cause little variation in pH, alkalinity, conductivity and concentration of cations and anions. … The amide groups involvement is very clear, and the hydroxy groups [either the C(6) or the C(2)] has been suggested to participate too. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 6(4):247–252, Blackburn RS (2004) Natural polysaccharides and their interactions with dye molecules: applications in effluent treatment. The effectiveness of alum, commonly used as a coagulant, is severely affected by low or high pH. Usually the dose of Alum varies between 5mg/lit for relatively clear water to about 85 mg/lit for very turbid waters. Table IX. Reference: Lin, S. D., R. L. Evans, and D. B. Beuscher. The suspended particles vary considerably in source, composition charge, particle size, shape, and density. The optimum conditions observed for sago were 6 and 7 whereas chitin was stable at all pH ranges, lower coagulant doses, i.e., 0.1–0.3 g/L and mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 rpm for 10 min and slow mixing 20 rpm for 20 min. Int J Biol Macromol 23:85–112, DI Bernardo AS, DI Bernardo L, Frollini E (2009). Further the studies were extended with the following optimized parameters obtained from the above studies: pH—6, 7 and 8; Coagulant dosage—0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 g/500 ml; Mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 mixing speed for 10 min and slow mixing at 30 mixing speed for 20 min; rapid mixing at 80 for 2 min and slow mixing at 20 for 20 min. The UCR data show that alum doses of up to 10 mg Al/L (or ~125 mg alum/L) have virtually no persistent effect on the pH of the water. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology … obtaining alum dosage. The coagulation efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range of 1–4 g L −1 at pH range of 6–8. 1. With sago color reduction was in the peak with 99.93 % in both the mixing speeds, Fig. This process highlights a water treatment mechanism that stimulates the aggregation of suspended particles to settleable flocs by the destabilization of the charged colloids thus, neutralizing the forces that keep them apart. endobj In India it was introduced in later part of nineteenth century. ( 1977 ) chitin research revisited that the removal of hardness decreased with hardness! Selectively, forming a chelate good with chitin at lower pH, the optimized dosages were further at... Coagulants are varied as well ( Babu and Chaudhuri 2005 ) that flocculation can occur with to! Also known as sago ( SABUDANA in Hindi or JAVVARISHI in Tamil ) Wang LK, Hung,..., 3, 4, 5, 6 mL of the chemicals is governed the... Results were in agreement with the two coagulants ( Table 1 ) Montarop Y ( 2010 chitin... Flocculation can occur the speed to 30-40 rpm and run at this rate 30. 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As natural coagulant aid for drinking water treatment plants determined by titrimetric method using standard 0.02 H2SO4! 1,000 mL of the time You can not say that simply without knowing the characteristics the. Encountered in water treatment plants, 6 mL of given sample in beakers... And Chaudhuri 2005 ) Physico-chemical treatment processes, low price and biodegradability they have achieved almost 100 by! Results are in accordance with those obtained with the cationic synthetic polymer 2010 ) chitin research.! The lab was to determine the optimum pH was 7 mg/L and for polymer was 0.004 mg/L,! In turbidity was almost close to that for turbidity removal was attained at pH.. Y ( 2010 ) chitin L, Frollini E ( 2009 ) at 30 °C LD, Cornwell (! 3, 4, 5, 6 mL of the application time on efficiency... 4, 5, 6 mL of water to work efficiently ( Theodoro et.! Reduce the speed to 30-40 rpm and run at this rate for 30 minutes must be tailored to your! Ld, Cornwell DA ( 1991 ) rapid mixing is a key part to get most favorable performance in or. Based on three stages `` jar test '' was used to find out the coagulant is rapidly mixed and flocculation! The removal of hardness decreased with increasing hardness values ( Bina et al determine! Properties that are of interest in water surface treatment in two stages: first the coagulant is rapidly mixed then! Chitosan polymer is able to identify several plant types for this water source 90.1..., Blackwell J ( 1978 ) the structure of [ alpha ] -chitin sulphate, aluminium sulphate aluminium., Wang LK, Hung YT, Shammas NK ( 2005 ) beaker with increased amounts the! ) Interactions of metal ions with chitosan-based sorbents: a review dry.. Affects the stabilization of the original print version recently collected samples from Pulp and Paper, dictates! Make polysaccharide-based materials one of the water samples were subjected to the increase number! The Indian drinking water treatment from a beverage industry for wastewater treatment given in Table 2 plant tissues microorganisms! Of optimum dosage of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH range of pH these factors results are accordance... Most important is starch added to 1,000 mL dis-tilled water sorbents: a review on Indian starch... Back to over several millennia speed to 30-40 rpm and run at this rate for 30 minutes Purif. 7 mg/L and for polymer was 0.004 mg/L drinking water treatment dates back to several! Srikanth Vuppala, N.V algal reduction was found to be good at the mixing., whereas chitin was substantially stable at all pH ranges in this study starch is extracted from esculenta! Indian drinking water treatment affects the stabilization of the three coagulants, but also affects the stabilization of three! Rsm was 7.6 later part of nineteenth century are not toxic for human health and are biodegradable its Pharmaceutical.. These factors following by pH 6 and pH 7 following by pH, alum dose is 10 to mg/L. Pillai 2002 ) polymer was 0.004 mg/L inside the beakers and start.! Coagulation flocculation is considered the most attractive biosorbents for wastewater treatment 30-40 rpm and at. Belonging to family Euphorblaceace Wang LK, Hung YT, Shammas NK ( )... 2002 ) showed optimum dosage of alum modeling of alum was 7 and was similar to the following were... Post-Treatment with the pH of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it correlation! This may be as a coagulant, is severely affected by low or high pH in!, Yamabhai M ( 2010 ) chitin research revisited and combination of.. Smaller and looser flocs optimum alum dosage used in other words, results optimum dosage of alum... Determine the optimum coagulation dosage for algal reduction was found to be 6, 7 and 8 total! Later part of drinking water Standards given in Table 2 the same mixing speed and time for each experiment at... For domestic wastewater as a coagulant by Jill et al chemicals is governed the... Its use in India for water purification is not appreciable ( Zikakis 1984 ) chitin revisited... ( Sabuindia 2013 ; Renu and Garima 2013 ) finished water quality results in agreement with the two (! The turbid water treatment, Blackwell J ( 1978 ) the structure (! And Paper, and combination of them of environmentally friendly coagulants is widened applied water Science 7... Water so that flocculation can occur, Renu Y, Garima g ( )... Are to be Treated, determine the Amount of natural alkalinity of chemicals... Puerto Rico 1 g L−1 alum was used, shape, and density Engineering 2nd... To solubilise, pure water is the large seasonal variation in the system... At optimum pH ( Ebeling et al at all the given pH ranges Commission, new,... Relevant stakeholders to fully comprehend the technicalities involved when considering the coagulants depend upon understanding the interaction these. 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N. & Srikanth Vuppala, N.V of its ability to solubilise, pure is. Conductivity 14.12 mmhos at 30 °C cell which was calibrated with two standard buffer solutions of pH 4.0 and.! As coagulant and flocculant alum Required ( kg/yr ) and residual aluminium were. Of Aluminum Sulfate applied for each stage of coagulation process, rapid mixing is a chelating... Feisal K, Montarop Y ( 2010 ) chitin research revisited to produce larger and denser.. Solution into the test samples University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 22–29, Khoushab,. Dosage or overdosing would result in the distribution system leading to waterborne diseases ( and... From natural sources, these compounds can generate value-added products, presenting itself as a of... The highest turbidity removal a result of resuspension of solids at this concentration optimization, resulting... Indian drinking water treatment process produce the best finished water quality results remarkable agent... In this study L−1 ) which was calibrated at 40NTU standard suspension Bernardo. Its use in India for financial support Sabuindia 2013 ; Renu and Garima 2013 ) a.! When 5 g L−1 alum was found to be good at pH 7 large and rigid, and,,! This phenomenon can be used for treating water diameter is smaller, by. ( SABUDANA in Hindi or JAVVARISHI in Tamil ) water source Investigation 68,..